Digimorph, An NSF Digital Library at UT Austin, Texas
help
DigiMorph
Browse the Library by:
 Scientific Names
 Common Names
 What's New ?
 What's Popular?
Learn More
Overview Pages
A Production of

Anolis sp., Anolis Lizard in Amber
Dr. Mike Polcyn - Southern Methodist University
J. V. Rogers II, Y. Kobayashi, and L. L. Jacobs
Anolis sp.
Click for help
skull
Click for more information

Shuler Museum of Paleontology (SMU 74976)

Image processing: Dr. Amy Balanoff
Image processing: Dr. Mike Polcyn
Publication Date: 11 Oct 2005

ITIS TNS Google MSN

Polcyn, M. J., J. V. Rogers, II, Y. Kobayashi, and L. L. Jacobs. 2002. Computed tomography of an anolis lizard in Dominican amber: systematic, taphonomic, biogeographic, and evolutionary implications. Palaeontologia Electronica 5:13p.

ABSTRACT

The cranial morphology of an Anolis lizard preserved in Dominican amber, observed using pseudo-three-dimensional reconstructed images derived from high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, demonstrates the lack of a splenial in the lower jaw. The specimen is referred to T-clade anoles, the clade that includes the A. chlorocyanus species group, to which two other Dominican anoles in amber have been referred. The pattern of bone breakage and loss suggests trauma followed by decomposition prior to entombment. The trunk-crown ecomorph of A. chlorocyanus species group anoles was established on what was to become Hispaniola between approximately 33 and 20 million years ago.

About the Species

Excerpted from Polcyn et al. (2002):

The specimen, SMU 74976, was donated to the Shuler Museum of Paleontology at Southern Methodist University (SMU) by William S. Lowe of Granbury, Texas, who discovered it in a commercial shipment of amber containing plant and insect inclusions. The amber originated in the Dominican Republic, but was purchased through a broker without precise locality data. Dominican amber deposits are considered to be late Early to early Middle Miocene in age, approximately 15-20 million years old (Iturralde-Vinent and MacPhee 1996).

Preserved elements include a relatively complete skull, portions of the first six cervical vertebrae, some soft tissue, and limited squamation. The posterior-most vertebra is exposed to the polished amber surface; the remaining portion of the fossil is completely encapsulated. Because of the exposure of an articulated vertebra on the surface of the amber, we assume the fossil was originally more complete (e.g., not preserved only as a head and neck), but that the loss of an undetermined amount of the body occurred between fossilization and curation.

This specimen was scanned by the University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility for Dr. Lou Jacobs of Southern Methodist University and Dr. Mike Polcyn of the Institute for the Study of Earth and Man. Funding for image processing was provided by a National Science Foundation Digital Libraries Initiative grant to Dr. Timothy Rowe of The University of Texas at Austin

About this Specimen

This specimen was scanned by Richard Ketcham on 20 July 1998 along the coronal axis for a total of 148 slices. Each slice is 0.06 mm thick, with an interslice spacing of 0.06 mm and a field of reconstruction of 4.5 mm.

About the
Scan

Literature

Adolph, S., and J. Roughgarden, J. 1983. Foraging by passerine birds and Anolis lizards on St. Eustatius (Neth. Antilles): implications for interclass competition and predation. Oecologia 56:313-317.

Andrews, P. 1990. Owls, caves, and fossils. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Brochu, C. A. 2000. A digitally-rendered endocast for Tyrannosaurus rex. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20:1-6.

Cifelli, R. L., T. B. Rowe, W. P. Luckett, J. Banta, R. Reyes, and R. I. Howes. 1996. Fossil evidence for the origin of the marsupial pattern of tooth replacement. Nature 379:715-718.

de Queiroz, K., L. Chu, and J. B. Losos. 1998. A second Anolis lizard in Dominican amber and the systematics and ecological morphology of Dominican amber anoles. American Museum Novitates 3249:1-23.

Dilcher, D. L., P. S. Herendeen, and F. Hueber. 1992. Fossil Acacia flowers with attached anther glands from Dominican Republic amber, p. 34-42. In P.S. Herendeen and D.L. Dilcher (eds.), Advances in Legume Systematics. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Estes, R., K. de Queiroz, and J. Gauthier. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships within Squamata, pp. 119-281. In R. Estes and G. Pregill (eds.), Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Etheridge, R. 1959. The relationships of the anoles (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae): an interpretation based on skeletal morphology. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Graham, A. 1992. The current status of the legume fossil record in the Caribbean region, p. 161-167. In P.S. Herendeen and D.L. Dilcher (eds.), Advances in Legume Systematics. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Hedges, S. B. 1996. Historical biogeography of West Indian vertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27:163-196.

Hueber, F. M., and J. Langenheim. 1986. Dominican amber tree had African ancestors. Geotimes 31:8-10.

Iturralde-Vinent, M. A., and R. D. E. MacPhee. 1999. Paleogeography of the Caribbean region: implications for Cenozoic biogeography. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 238:1-95.

Iturralde-Vinent, M. A., and R. D. E. MacPhee. 1996. Age and paleogeographical origin of Dominican amber. Science 273:1850-1852.

Jackman, T. R., A. Larson, K. de Queiroz, and J. B. Losos. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships and tempo of early diversification in Anolis lizards. Systematic Biology 48:254-285.

Kobayashi, K., D. A. Winkler, and L. L. Jacobs. 2002. Origin of the tooth-replacement pattern in therian mammals: evidence from a 110 Myr old fossil. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:369-373.

Leviton, A. E., R. H. Gibbs, Jr., E. Heal, and C. E. Dawson. 1985. Standards in herpetology and ichthyology: Part I. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology. Copeia 1985:802-832.

Losos, J. B., and K. de Queiroz. 1997. Evolutionary consequences of ecological release in Caribbean Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 61:459-483.

Losos, J. B., K. I. Warheit, and T. W. Schoener. 1997. Adaptive differentiation following experimental island colonization in Anolis lizards. Nature 387:70-73.

McLaughlin, J. F., and J. Roughgarden. 1989. Avian predation on Anolis lizards in the northeastern Caribbean: an inter-island contrast. Ecology 70:617-628.

Newtek. 2001. Lightwave v. 6.5. San Antonio, Texas.

Poe, S. 1998. Skull characters and the cladistic relationships of the Hispaniolan dwarf twig Anolis. Herpetological Monographs 122:192-236.

Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1991. Hymenaea protera sp.n. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae) from Dominican amber has African affinities. Experientia 47:1075-82.

Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Rieppel, O. 1980. Green anole in Dominican amber. Nature 286:486-487.

Roughgarden, L. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. Oxford University Press.

Rowe, T. 1996. Coevolution of the mammalian middle ear and neocortex. Science 273:651-654.

Scion. 1998. Scion Image, ver. Beta 3b 7-23-98. Based on NIH image for Macintosh by Wayne Rasband, National Institute of Health, U.S.A. Modified by Scion Corp., Frederick, Maryland.

Stimie, M. 1966. The cranial anatomy of the iguanid Anolis carolinensis (Cuvier). Annals of the University of Stellenbosch 41:243-268.

Thomson, K. S. 1997. Natural selection and evolution's smoking gun. American Scientist 85:516-518.

Vaytek. 2000. Voxblast v. 3.0. Vaytek, Inc. Fairfield, Iowa.

Williams, E. E. 1972. The origin of faunas. Evolution of lizard congeners in a complex island fauna: a trial analysis. Evolutionary Biology 6:47-89.

Williams, E. E. 1976. West Indian anoles: A taxonomic and evolutionary summary 1. Introduction and a species list. Breviora 440:21 pp.

Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora 227:16 pp.

Williams, E. E. 1983. Ecomorphs, faunas, island size, and diverse end points in island radiations of Anolis, pp. 326-370. In R.B. Huey, E.R. Pianka, and T.W. Schoener (eds.), Lizard Ecology, Studies of a Model Organism. Harvard University Press.

Williams, E. E., H. Rand, A. S. Rand, and R. J. O'Hara. 1995. A computer approach to the comparison and identification of species in difficult taxonomic groups. Breviora 502:47 pp.

Links

more imagery of this specimen from the Institute for the Study of Earth and Man (Southern Methodist University)

Literature
& Links

None available.

Additional
Imagery

To cite this page: Dr. Mike Polcyn, J. V. Rogers II, Y. Kobayashi, and L. L. Jacobs, 2005, "Anolis sp." (On-line), Digital Morphology. Accessed October 25, 2014 at http://digimorph.org/specimens/Anolis_sp/.

©2002 - UTCT/DigiMorph Funding by NSF
Hits=14936. Comments to info@digimorph.org