Digimorph, An NSF Digital Library at UT Austin, Texas
help
DigiMorph
Browse the Library by:
 Scientific Names
 Common Names
 What's New ?
 What's Popular?
Learn More
Overview Pages
A Production of

Kaganaias hakusanensisFossil, Mosasauroid Lizard
Dr. Susan Evans - University College London
Dr. Makoto Manabe, Dr. Miyuki Noro, Dr. Shinji Isaji, and Dr. Mikiko Yamaguchi
Kaganaias hakusanensis
Click for help
skull
Click for more information

Shiramine Board of Education (SBEI 1568) - holotype

Image processing: Dr. Jessie Maisano
Publication Date: 01 Dec 2006

ITIS TNS Google MSN

Abstract from A Long-Bodied Lizard from the Lower Cretaceous of Japan, by S.E. Evans, M. Manabe, M. Noro, S. Isaji, and M. Yamaguchi, 2006 (Palaeontology 49:1143-1165):

       Platynotan lizards underwent a dramatic Late Cretaceous radiation into marine habitats. Beginning        with small-bodied forms, the lineage culminated with the mosasaurs, large predatory lizards with a        world-wide distribution in the Santonian–Campanian. Moreover, the marine squamate radiations of the        Cenomanian–Turonian are remarkable in having produced a range of long-bodied, reduced-limbed        swimmers (dolichosaurs, adriosaurs, coniasaurs and limbed snakes) that seem to have thrived in the        shallow coastal environments of the Western Tethys region. Until now, none of these long-bodied        aquatic squamates has been recorded prior to the Cenomanian, none has been recovered from a        non-marine locality and none is known from Asia. Here we describe a small, gracile, long-bodied        mosasauroid lizard from a swampy continental deposit in the Lower Cretaceous of Japan.

About the Species

This specimen, the holotype, consists of the part (shown above) and counterpart of an articulated partial skeleton comprising parts of the dorsal vertebral series and parts of the tail, pelvis and hind limbs. It was collected from the Neocomian Kuwajima Formation, Itoshiro Subgroup, Tetori Group at Kuwajima, Hakusan City, Ishikawa Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. It was made available for scanning by Dr. Makoto Manabe of the National Science Museum, Tokyo and Dr. Susan Evans of University College London.

Joint work on the Tetori vertebrate assemblage was initiated under Royal Society-Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Funding, and was continued under grants from the Prefectural Government of Ishikawa and the Village of Shiramine (now part of Hakusan City), and a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research (No. 15340179) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan (to Makoto Manabe). Funding for CT scanning and image processing was provided by the latter body. Funding for image processing for the web was provided by a National Science Foundation Digital Libraries Initiative grant to Dr. Timothy Rowe of The University of Texas at Austin.

View of part

View of counterpart

About this Specimen

The specimen was scanned by Matthew Colbert on 24-25 February 2004. The part and counterpart were scanned separately. Each 1024x1024 pixel slice is 0.06 mm thick, with an interslice spacing of 0.06 mm and a field of reconstruction of 40 mm.

About the
Scan

Literature

AZUMA, Y. and KOBAYASHI, Y. 2003. A new iguanodontian (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Lower Cretaceous Kitadani Formation of Fukui Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23, 194–202.

AZUMA, Y., KOBAYASHI, Y. and TOMIDA, Y. 1995. Early Cretaceous dinosaur fauna of the Tetori Group in Japan. 125–131. In SUN, A. L. and WANG, Y. Q. (eds). Sixth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems and Biota: short papers. China Ocean Press, Beijing, 250 pp.

BELL, G. L. 1997. A phylogenetic revision of North American and Adriatic Mosasauroidea. 281–292. In CALLAWAY, J. M. and NICHOLLS, E. L. (eds). Ancient marine reptiles. Academic Press, London and New York, 448 pp.

BEVER, G. S., BELL, C. J. and MAISANO, J. A. 2005. The ossified braincase and cephalic osteoderms of Shinisaurus crocodilurus (Squamata, Shinisauridae). Palaeontologia Electronica, 8, 1–36.

BORSUK-BIALYNICKA, M. 1984. Anguimorphans and related lizards from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. Palaeontologia Polonica, 46, 5–105.

BROSCHINSKI , A. 2000. The lizards from the Guimarota mine. 59–68. In MARTIN, T. and KREBS, B. (eds). Guimarota, a Jurassic ecosystem. Verlag Dr Friedrich Pfeil, Munich, 155 pp.

CALDWELL, M. W. 1999a. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new species of Coniasaurus Owen, 1850. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19, 438–455.

CALDWELL, M. W. 1999b. Squamate phylogeny and the relationships of snakes and mosasauroids. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 125, 115–147.

CALDWELL, M. W. 2000a. On the aquatic squamate Dolichosaurus longicollis Owen, 1950 (Cenomanian, Upper Cretaceous) and the evolution of elongate necks in squamates. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20, 720–735.

CALDWELL, M. W. 2000b. On the phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis within snakes: a response to Zaher (1998). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20, 181–184.

CALDWELL, M. W. 2002. From fins to limbs to fins: limb evolution in fossil marine reptiles. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 112, 236–249.

CALDWELL, M. W. and ALBINO, A. M. 2001. On the palaeoenvironment and palaeoecology of three Cretaceous snakes: Pachyophis, Pachyrhachis, and Dinilysia. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46, 203–218.

CALDWELL, M. W., CARROLL, R. L. and KAISER, H. 1995. The pectoral girdle and forelimb of Carsosaurus marchesetti (Aigialosauridae) with a preliminary phylogenetic analysis of mosasauroids and varanoids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 15, 516–531.

CALDWELL, M. W. and COOPER, J. 1999. Redescription, palaeobiogeography, and palaeoecology of Coniasaurus crassidens Owen, 1850 (Squamata) from the English Chalk (Cretaceous: Cenomanian). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 127, 423–452.

CALDWELL, M. W. and DAL SASSO, C. 2004. Soft-tissue preservation in a 95 million year old marine lizard; form, function and aquatic adaptation. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24, 980–985.

CALDWELL, M. W. and LEE, M. S. Y. 1997. A snake with legs from the marine Cretaceous of the Middle East. Nature, 386, 705–709.

CALLIGARIS, R. 1988. I rettili fossili degli ‘strati calcarei ittiolitici di Comeno’ e dell’isola di Lesina. Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste, 41, 85–125.

CALLIGARIS, R. 1993. Acteosaurus crassicostatus, nuova specie di Dolichosauridae negli ‘strati calcarei ittiolitici’ di Comeno. Atti del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste, 45, 29–34.

CARROLL, R. L. and DEBRAGA, M. 1992. Aigialosaurs: mid-Cretaceous varanoid lizards. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 12, 66–86.

COATES, M. and RUTA, M. 2000. Nice snake, shame about the legs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 503–507.

CONRAD, J. L. 2004. Skull, mandible, and hyoid of Shinisaurus crocodilurus Ahl (Squamata, Anguimorpha). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 141, 399–434.

CORNALIA, E. and CHIOZZA, L. 1852. Cenni geologici sull' Istria. Giornale dell’Imperiale Reale Instituto Lombardo di Scienze Lettere ed Arte e Biblioteca Italiana, 3, 1–35.

CUNY, G., JAEGER, J. J., MAHBOUBI , M. and RAGE, J. C. 1990. Les plus anciens serpents (Reptilia, Squamata) connus. Mise au point sur l’age geologique des serpents de la partie moyenne du Cretace. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris II, 311, 1267–1272.

DAL SASSO, C. and PINNA, G. 1997. Aphanizocnemus libanensis n. gen. n. sp., a new dolichosaur (Reptilia, Varanoidea) from the Upper Cretaceous of Lebanon. Paleontologia Lombarda della Societa` Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Nuova Serie, 7, 3–31.

DAL SASSO, C. and RENESTO, S. 1999. Aquatic varanoid reptiles from the Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) lithographic limestones of Lebanon. Rivista della Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, ‘E.Caffi’, Bergamo, 20, 63–69.

DEBRAGA, M. and CARROLL, R. L. 1993. The origin of mosasaurs as a model of macroevolutionary patterns and processes. Evolutionary Biology, 27, 245–322.

DUMÉRIL, A. M. C. and BIBRON, G. 1836. Erpétologie générale, ou histoire naturelle complète des Reptiles. Volume 3. Libraire Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, 517 pp.

ESTES, R. 1983. Sauria terrestria, Amphisbaenia. In WELLNHOFER, P. (ed.). Handbuch der Pala¨oherpetologie, 10A. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 245 pp.

ESTES, R., DE QUEIROZ, K. and GAUTHIER, J. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships within Squamata. 119–281. In ESTES, R. and PREGILL, G. (eds). Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 631 pp.

EVANS, S. E. 1994. A new anguimorph lizard from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of England. Palaeontology, 37, 33–49.

EVANS, S. E. 1996. Parviraptor (Squamata: Anguimorpha) and other lizards from the Morrison Formation at Fruita, Colorado. Bulletin of the Museum of Northern Arizona, 60, 243–248.

EVANS, S. E. 1998. Crown group lizards from the Middle Jurassic of Britain. Palaeontographica, Abteilungen A, 250, 123–154.

EVANS, S. E. and BARBADILLO, L. J. 1997. Early Cretaceous lizards from las Hoyas, Spain. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119, 23–49.

EVANS, S. E. and BARBADILLO, L. J. 1998. An unusual lizard from the Early Cretaceous of Las Hoyas, Spain. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 124, 235–265.

EVANS, S. E. and BARBADILLO, L. J. 1999. A short-limbed lizard from the Early Cretaceous of Spain. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 60, 73–85.

EVANS, S. E. and CHURE, D. 1998. Paramacellodid lizard skulls from the Jurassic Morrison Formation at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18, 99–114.

EVANS, S. E. and MANABE, M. 1998. Early Cretaceous frog remains from the Okurodani Formation, Tetori Group, Japan. Paleontological Research, 2, 275–278.

EVANS, S. E. and MANABE, M. 1999a. A choristoderan reptile from the Lower Cretaceous of Japan. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 60, 101–119.

EVANS, S. E. and MANABE, M. 1999b. Early Cretaceous lizards from the Okurodani Formation of Japan. Geobios, 32, 889–899.

EVANS, S. E. and MANABE, M. 2000. Fossil lizards. 105–106. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

EVANS, S. E., MANABE, M. COOK, E., HIRAYAMA, R., I SAJ I , S., NICHOLAS, C. J., UNWIN, D. and YABUMOTO, Y. 1998. An Early Cretaceous assemblage from Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, 14, 183–186.

FUJITA, M. 2003. Geological age and correlation of the vertebrate-bearing horizons in the Tetori Group. Memoir of the Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum, 2, 3–14.

FÜRBRINGER, M. 1900. Beitrag zur Systematik und Genealogie der Reptilien. Jenaischen Zeitschrift fu¨r Naturwissenschaften, 34, 596–682.

GANS, C. 1962. Terrestrial locomotion without limbs. American Zoologist, 2, 167–182.

GANS, C. 1975. Tetrapod limblessness: evolution and functional correlaries. American Zoologist, 15, 455–467.

GAO, K. and NORELL, M. A. 1998. Taxonomic revision of Carusia (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Late Cretaceous of the Gobi Desert and phylogenetic relationships of the anguimorphan lizards. American Museum Novitates, 3230, 1–51.

GASC, J. P. 1981. Axial musculature. 355–435. In GANS, C. and PARSONS, T. S. (eds). Biology of the Reptilia, 11. Academic Press, New York, 475 pp.

GIFU-KEN DINOSAUR RESEARCH GROUP 1992. The Tetori Group in Ogamigo area, Shokawa-mura, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the Gifu Prefectural Museum, 13, 9–16. [In Japanese].

GRADSTEIN, F. M. and OGG, J. G. 2004. Geologic time scale 2004, why, how, and where next? Lethaia, 37, 175–181.

GREENE, H. W. and CUNDALL, D. 2000. Limbless tetrapods and snakes with legs. Science, 287, 1939–1941.

HAAS, G. 1979. On a new snake-like reptile from the Lower Cenomanian of Ein Jabrud, near Jerusalem. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 1, 51–64.

HAAS, G. 1980a. Remarks on a new ophiomorph reptile from the lower Cenomanian of Ein Jabrud, Israel. 177–192. In JACOBS, L. L. (ed.). Aspects of vertebrate history: essays in honor of Edwin Harris Colbert. Museum of Northern Arizona Press, Flagstaff, 407 pp.

HAAS, G. 1980b. Pachyrhachis problematicus Haas, snakelike reptile from the Lower Cenomanian: ventral view of the skull. Bulletin du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 2, 87–104.

HASEGAWA, Y., MANABE, M., ISAJ I , S., OHKURA, M., SHIBATA, I. and YAMAGUCHI , I. 1995. Terminally resorbed iguanodontid teeth from the Neocomian Tetori Group, Ishikawa and Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series C, 21, 35–49.

HIRAYAMA, R. 1996. Fossil land turtles from the Early Cretaceous of Central Japan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16 (Supplement to No. 3), 41A.

HIRAYAMA, R. 1999. Testudinoid turtles from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomina) of Central Japan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19 (Supplement to No. 3), 51–52A.

HIRAYAMA, R. 2000. Fossil turtles. 75–92. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

HOFFSTETTER, R. and GASC, J. P. 1969. Vertebrae and ribs of modern reptiles. 201–310. In GANS, C., BELLAIRS, A. d’A. and PARSONS, T. S. (eds). Biology of the Reptilia, 1. Academic Press, London, 373 pp.

I SAJ I , S., OKAZAKI , H., HIRAYAMA, R., MATSUOKA, H., BARRETT, P., TSUBAMOTO, T., YAMAGUCHI, M., YAMAGUCHI , I. and SAKUMOTO, T. 2005. Depositional environments and taphonomy of the bone-bearing beds of the Lower Cretaceous Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Japan. Bulletin of the Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Series A, Natural History, 3, 123–133.

KEARNEY, M. 2003a. Systematics of the Amphisbaenia (Lepidosauria: Squamata) based on morphological evidence from recent and fossil forms. Herpetological Monographs, 17, 1–74.

KEARNEY, M. 2003b. The phylogenetic position of Sineoamphisbaena hexatabularis reexamined. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 23, 394–403.

KORNHUBER, A. 1893. Carsosaurus marchesettii, ein neuer fossiler Lacertilier aus den Kreideschichten des Karstes bei Komen. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koenigliche Geologischen Reichsanstalt Wien, 17, 1–16.

KORNHUBER, A. 1901. Opetiosaurus bucchichi, eine neue Eidechse aus der unteren Kreide von Lesina in Dalmatien. Abhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Koenigliche Geologischen Reichsanstalt Wien, 17, 1–24.

KRAMBERGER, K. G. 1892. Aigialosaurus, eine neue Eidechse aus den Kreideschiefern der Insel Lesina mit Rucksicht auf die bereits beschriebenen Lacertiden von Comen und Lesina. Glasnik Huvatskoga Naravolosovnoga Derstva (Societas Historico-Matulis Croatica) u Zagrebu, 7, 74–106.

KUSUHASHI , N., MATSUOKA, H., KAMIYA, H. and SETOGUCHI , T. 2002. Stratigraphy of the late Mesozoic Tetori Group in the Hakusan Region, central Japan: an overview. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Geology and Mineralogy Series, 59, 9–31.

LEE, M. S. Y. 1997. The phylogeny of varanoid lizards and the affinities of snakes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 352, 53–91.

LEE, M. S. Y. 1998. Convergent evolution and character correlation in burrowing reptiles: towards a resolution of squamate phylogeny. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 65, 369–453.

LEE, M. S. Y., BELL, G. and CALDWELL, M. W. 1999a. The origins of snake feeding. Nature, 400, 655–659.

LEE, M. S. Y. and CALDWELL, M. W. 1998. Anatomy and relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, a primitive snake with hindlimbs. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 353, 1521–1552.

LEE, M. S. Y. and CALDWELL, M. W. 2000. Adriosaurus and the affinities of mosasaurs, dolichosaurs, and snakes. Journal of Paleontology, 74, 915–937.

LEE, M. S. Y., CALDWELL, M. W. and SCANLON, J. D. 1999b. A second primitive marine snake: Pachyophis woodwardi from the Cretaceous of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Journal of Zoology, 248, 509–520.

LEE, M. S. Y. and SCANLON, J. D. 2002. Snake phylogeny based on osteology, soft anatomy and ecology. Biological Reviews, 77, 333–401.

MACEY, J. R., SCHULTE, J. A., LARSON, A., TUNIYEV, B. S., ORLOV, N. and PAPENFUSS, T. J. 1999. Molecular phylogenetics, tRNA evolution, and historical biogeography in anguid lizards and related taxonomic families. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 12, 250–272.

MAEDA, S. 1961. On the geological history of the Mesozoic Tetori Group in Japan. Journal of the College of Arts and Science, Chiba University, 3, 369–426. [In Japanese, English abstract].

MANABE, M. 1999. The early history of the Tyrannosauridae in Asia. Journal of Paleontology, 13, 477–482.

MANABE, M. and BARRETT, P. M. 2000. Dinosaurs. 93–98. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

MANABE, M., BARRETT, P. M. and ISAJI, S. 2000. A refugium for relicts? Nature, 404, 953.

MANABE, M., ROUGIER, G. W., ISAJI, S. and MATSUOKA, H. 2000. Fossil mammals. 107–108. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

MATSUKAWA, M. and OBATA, I. 1994. Dinosaurs and sedimentary environments in the Japanese Cretaceous: a contribution to dinosaur facies in Asia based on molluscan palaeontology and stratigraphy. Cretaceous Research, 15, 101–125.

MATSUMOTO, R., EVANS, S. E. and SHIMOJ IMA, S. 2002. The dentary of a choristodere (Reptilia: Archosauromorpha) from the Okurodani Formation, Tetori Group (Early Cretaceous), Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, 28, 43–48.

MATSUOKA, H. 2000a. A frog fossil. 50–52. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

MATSUOKA, H. 2000b. Tritylodonts (Synapsida, Therapsida). 53–74. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

MEYER, H. von 1860. Acteosaurus tommasinii aus dem schwarzen Kreide-Schiefer von Comen am Karste. Palaeontographica, 7, 223.

NOPSCA, F. 1908. Zur kenntnis der fossilen Eidechsen. Beitrage zur Palaontologie und Geologie Osterreich-Ungarns und des Orients, 21, 33–62.

NOPSCA, F. 1923. Eidolosaurus and Pachyophis. Zwei neue Neocom Reptilien. Palaeontographica, 65, 97–154.

NYDAM, R. L. 2000. A new taxon of helodermatid-like lizard from the Albian–Cenomanian of Utah. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 20, 285–294.

OPPEL, M. 1811. Die Ordnungen, Familien und Gattungen der Reptilien, als Prodrom einer Naturgeschichte derselben. Joseph Lindauer, Munich, 87 pp.

PIERCE, S. and CALDWELL, M. W. 2004. Redescription and phylogenetic position of the Adriatic (Upper Cretaceous; Cenomanian) dolichosaur, Pontosaurus lesinensis (Kornhuber, 1873). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24, 373–386.

POLCYN, M. J., TCHERNOV, E. and JACOBS, L. L. 1999. The Cretaceous biogeography of the eastern Mediterranean with a description of a new basal mosasauroid from ‘Ein Yabrud’, Israel. 259–290. In TOMIDA, Y., RICH, T. H. and VICKERS -RICH, P. (eds). Proceedings of the Second Gondwanan Dinosaur Symposium. National Science Monographs, 15, Tokyo, 296 pp.

PREGILL, G. K., GAUTHIER, J. A. and GREENE, H. W. 1986. The evolution of helodermatid squamates, with description of a new taxon and an overview of Varanoidea. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 21, 167–202.

RAGE, J. C. 1984. Serpentes. In WELLNHOFER, P. (ed.). Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie, 11. Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, 80 pp.

RAGE, J. C. 1988. Un serpent primitif (Reptilia, Serpentes) dans le Cenomanian (base du Cretace superieur). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris, 307, 1027–1032.

RAGE, J. C. and ESCUILLIÉ, F. 2000. Un nouveau serpent bipè de du Cénomanien (Crétacé). Implications phylétiques. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris, Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes, 330, 513–520.

RAGE, J. C. and ESCUILLIÉ, F. 2002. Eupodophis, new name for the genus Podophis Rage and Escuillié, 2000, an extinct bipedal snake, preoccupied by Podophis Wiegmann, 1843 (Lacertilia, Scincidae). Amphibia-Reptilia (Leyden), 23, 232–233.

REYNOSO, V. H. 1998. Huehuecuetzpalli mixtecus gen. et sp. nov: a basal squamate (Reptilia) from the Early Cretaceous of Tepexi de Rodríguez, central México. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 353, 477–500.

RIEPPEL, O. 1980. The phylogeny of anguimorphan lizards. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 94, 1–98.

RIEPPEL, O. and KEARNEY, M. 2001. The origin of snakes: limits of a scientific debate. Biologist, 48, 110–114.

RIEPPEL, O. and ZAHER, H. 2000a. The braincases of mosasaurs and Varanus, and the relationships of snakes. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 129, 489–514.

RIEPPEL, O. and ZAHER, H. 2000b. The intramandibular joint in squamates, and the phylogenetic relationships of the fossil snake Pachyrachis problematicus Haas. Fieldiana, Geology, New Series, 43, 1–69.

RIEPPEL, O., ZAHER, H., TCHERNOV, E. and POLCYN, M. J. 2003. The anatomy and relationships of Haasiophis terrasanctus, a fossil snake with well-developed limbs from the mid-Cretaceous of the Middle East. Journal of Paleontology, 77, 536–558.

ROMER, A. S. 1956. Osteology of the reptiles. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 772 pp.

ROUGIER, G. W., ISAJI , S. and MANABE, M. 1999. An Early Cretaceous Japanese triconodont and a revision of triconodont phylogeny. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19 (Supplement to No. 3), 72A.

RUSSELL, D. A. 1967. Systematics and morphology of American mosasaurs. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale, Bulletin, 23, 1–241.

SETOGUCHI , T., MATSUOKA, H. and MATSUDA, M. 1999a. New discovery of an early Cretaceous tritylodontid (Reptilia, Therapsida) from Japan and the phylogenetic reconstruction of Tritylodontidae based on dental characters. 117–124. In WANG, Y. Q. and DENG, T. (eds). Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Chinese Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. China Ocean Press, Beijing, 274 pp.

SETOGUCHI , T., TSUBAMOTO, T., HANAMURA, H. and HACHIYA, K. 1999b. An early Late Cretaceous mammal from Japan, with reconsideration of the evolution of tribosphenic molars. Paleontological Research, 3, 18–28.

SWOFFORD, D. L. 1993. PAUP* – (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony), version 3.1.1. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

TAKADA, T., MATSUOKA, H. and SETOGUCHI, T. 2001. The first multituberculate from Japan. 55–58. In DENG, T. and WANG, Y. (eds). Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the Chinese Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. China Ocean Press, Beijing, 301 pp.

TCHERNOV, E., RIEPPEL, O., ZAHER, H., POLCYN, M. J. and JACOBS, L. L. 2000. A fossil snake with limbs. Science, 287, 2010–2012.

TOWNSEND, T. M., LARSON, A., LOUIS, E. and MACEY, J. R. 2004. Molecular phylogenetics of Squamata: the position of snakes, amphisbaenians, and dibamids, and the root of the squamate tree. Systematic Biology, 53, 735–757.

UNWIN, D. M., BAKHURINA, N. N., LOCKLEY, M. G. and MANABE, M. J. 1997. Pterosaurs from Asia. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of Korea, 2, 43–65.

UNWIN, D. M., MANABE, M., SHIMIZU, K. and HASEGAWA, Y. 1996. First record of pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Tetori Group: a wing-phalange from the Amagodani Formation in Shokawa, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo, Series C, Geology and Paleontology, 22, 37–46.

UNWIN, D. M. and MATSUOKA, H. 2000. Pterosaurs and birds. 51–54. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kasekikabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

VIDAL, N. and HEDGES, S. B. 2004. Molecular evidence for a terrestrial origin of snakes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 271, 226–229.

WIENS, J. J. and SLINGHUFF, J. L. 2001. How lizards turn into snakes: a phylogenetic analysis of body-form evolution in anguid lizards. Evolution, 55, 2303–2318.

WU, X. C., BRINKMAN, D. B. and RUSSELL, A. P. 1996. Sineoamphisbaena hextabularis, an amphisbaenian (Diapsida, Squamata) from the Upper Cretaceous redbeds at Bayan Mandahu (Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic of China), and comments on the phylogenetic relationships of the Amphisbaenia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33, 541–577.

WU, X. C., BRINKMAN, D. B. RUSSELL, A. P., DONG, Z., CURRIE, P. J. and HOU, L. G. 1993. Oldest known amphisbaenian from the Upper Cretaceous of Chinese Inner Mongolia. Nature, 366, 57–59.

YABUMOTO, Y. 2000. Fossil fishes. 46–49. In MATSUOKA, H. (ed.). Fossils of the Kuwajima ‘Kaseki-kabe’ (Fossil-bluff). Scientific report on a Neocomian (Early Cretaceous) fossil assemblage from the Kuwajima Formation, Tetori Group, Shiramine, Ishikawa, Japan. Shiramine Village Board of Education, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, 277 pp. [In Japanese, English abstract].

ZAHER, H. 1998. The phylogenetic position of Pachyrhachis within snakes (Squamata, Serpentes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 18, 1–3.

ZAHER, H. and RIEPPEL, O. 1999. The phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrhachis problematicus, and the evolution of limblessness in snakes (Lepidosauria, Squamata). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris, 329, 831–837.

ZAHER, H. and RIEPPEL, O. 2000. A brief history of snakes. Herpetological Review, 31, 73–76.

ZAHER, H. and RIEPPEL, O. 2002. On the phylogenetic relationships of the Cretaceous snakes with legs, with special reference to Pachyrhachis problematicus (Squamata, Serpentes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22, 104–109.

Literature
& Links

Movie showing close-up of vertebrae. Click on thumbnail to view (2mb).

Movie showing close-up of pelvic region. Click on thumbnail to view (2mb).

Movie showing close-up of left hindlimb (from counterpart). Click on thumbnail to view (1mb).

Additional
Imagery

To cite this page: Dr. Susan Evans, Dr. Makoto Manabe, Dr. Miyuki Noro, Dr. Shinji Isaji, and Dr. Mikiko Yamaguchi, 2006, "Kaganaias hakusanensis" (On-line), Digital Morphology. Accessed November 28, 2014 at http://digimorph.org/specimens/Kaganaias_hakusanensis/.

©2002 - UTCT/DigiMorph Funding by NSF
Hits=11074. Comments to info@digimorph.org